Tularemia in cats and cats
Tularemia is a natural focal, vector-borne infectious disease that affects mammals most species, including birds and humans. Not spared this disease and cats. The disease manifests itself in a fever, septicemia, inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and upper respiratory tract. In addition, an increase in regional and cheesy degeneration limfauzlov (or lymphadenitis). On top there are various inflammatory and necrotic foci in the lungs, liver and spleen, paralysis, affects the nervous system, the animal loses weight much.
The causative agent of tularemia exhibits considerable resistance in the external environment, especially at low temperatures, but at the same time is very sensitive to different physical (solar, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, high temperature) and chemical influences.
For the first time the disease struck Tulyare county that is in the state of California (USA) in 1908. First cases were rodents. And in 1911, Coe and Mac Chapin revealed a culture that causes the disease. In 1921, of the same disease in the same state in the US and the people affected sheep. At the suggestion of E. Frenisisa disease called tularemia. The disease is common in America, Japan and some countries in Europe and Asia, as well as in Africa. In other words, for the most part suffer from tularemia, typically in countries where the climate is moderate and the evenness of the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia, the first time the disease was discovered in 1921. From an economic point of view, the damage to livestock caused by tularemia in general insignificant, because the clinical form of the disease is extremely rare. Only holding protivotulyaremiynyh events causing material damage, as it requires significant embezzlement.
The causative agent of this disease is Francisella tularensis, which in turn is divided into three types – American – Francisella tularensis nearctica, Central Asian – Francisella tularensis mediasiatica, and the Euro-Asian – Francisella tularensis holarctica. Euro-Asian can also be golarktichekim and Palearctic. In the Russian Federation, for example mainly distributed Holarctic species.
In the animal body, the disease, its organism, manifested in the form of thin, short sticks, static, non-spore-forming and having a capsule. Under aerobic conditions, at a specially designated solid or liquid media begins to be cultivated. Also, the cultivation takes place in embryonated chicken eggs, thus causing their death during 70-120 hours after infection.
If Aviram-lent species contain only O-antigen, the virulent include O-, H – and V-antigen.
To tularemia predisposed hundred twenty-five species of vertebrates, and one hundred and one species of invertebrates. In the natural environment may be ill rabbits, water rats, mice, wild rabbits, hamsters, beavers, squirrels and muskrats. Also have been reported cases of different species of birds. Natural foci of disease activity may be in more than fifty years. With regard to farm animals, some of them the most susceptible to the virus of tularemia are pigs and lambs aged from two to four months, and of cattle, donkeys and horses. In addition, suffer from this disease can camels, rabbits, reindeer and buffalo. If we consider the stability of the disease, it turns out that young sheep are more likely to become infected with the disease, more than adults. Thus in goats against tularemia immunity is much better than in sheep. With regard to birds, the risk group are chicken, especially young chicks. But turkeys and geese practically not able to catch. If we take the laboratory animals, the most susceptible to the disease are white mice and guinea pigs.
The main source of the disease from infected animals. For tank in the environment of the population are outlined above Species. A carrier of the virus are infected feed, water reservoirs and soil, as well as insects bloodsuckers.
There are three ways in which domestic and farm animals, if you include them in the so-called epizootic process that occurs usually in wild animals may become infected in three ways:
Note that the virus can enter the body and through the intact skin, and mucous membranes of the respiratory and conjunctiva. Moreover, sometimes the infection occurs as a result of the use of intrauterine infected animals. For example, cats and pigs can be infected by eating rats and mice, and dogs? rabbits and hares. In other words, its facilities for hunting.
Farm animals can not transmit the virus within the herd, as they have the disease is latent, the bacteria are separated passively. That is, the animal does not take absolutely no part in the circulation of the pathogen.
It is also distinguished by the outbreak of tularemia seasonal differences:
pasture, which falls on the spring and summer;
stall? in the autumn and winter period.
The reason this division with the activity of insect bloodsuckers in different seasons, as well as places of storage of feed and the presence of rodents in the nomad camps.
Pathogenesis of tularemia in cats and cats
Once the virus enters the body through the bite of an animal arthropod or rodent, with food, water or air, immediately begins the process of its distribution in the place of introduction. After this infection gets to the regional lymph nodes. There it continues its process of reproduction, thereby causing inflammatory processes. This leads to an increase in the lymph nodes, they harden, soften and subsequent autopsy. The tissue that surrounds the site of infection swells and becomes congested. As a result of the microbes from the infected hosts enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, leading to shock and other lymph nodes, lung, liver and spleen, the formation of new ulcers. Parenchyma cells are affected, and begins development septtsemii. Animal dies when the number concentration of microbes in his body reaches a maximum.
How is the disease. Its clinical manifestations. Suspect that the epidemic of tularemia in wild animals can be based on their behavior. They weakened the instinct of self-preservation. For example, hares and wild rabbits cease to fear man and allow him to easily catch yourself. Increased mortality in rats and mice.
Dogs affected tularemia can spend hours lying motionless, they lost appetite, and they are increasingly hiding from the sun in the shade. Also in animals there is a strong depletion of the conjunctiva are covered by numerous ulcers. Especially when it comes to sick dogs, increased mandibular and inguinal lymph nodes. In addition, there are cuts and paralysis of the hind limbs. It also happens that the disease entails a disorder of the digestive system. And when the disease begins to draw to a close in animals begins abruptly weakness, reduces the activity of the heart of its activities, anemia occurs mucous membranes. As for cats, they become flabby, lymph nodes in their neck and head swell up, then starts vomiting, emaciation and eventually death.
Pathological symptoms of tularemia in cats and cats
In the bodies of animals observed depletion in the axillary region observed baldness. On certain parts of the body seen seals that covered hemorrhage and necrosis, lymph nodes are enlarged and covered with many ulcers. Throat increased: tonsils and tongue root clogged caseous pus-stoppers. Spleen swells, and the pulp when cut becomes dark red color, and the nodules are grayish yellow. With regard to the epicardium and the adrenal glands, then they formed a petechial hemorrhages. In short, in the overall picture can speak of sepsis.
In rodents pathological features similar to those of pseudotuberculosis.
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of tularemia in cats and cats
Suspected tularemia occur if present in humans, rodents, as well as farm animals and pets. Diagnosis can be made only when the investigation will be conducted as follows:
epizootic and pathological data;
serology: RA, RP, Riga, LV;
allergic, administered subcutaneously tulyarin.
In order to determine the presence of disease in the corpse, spend erythrocyte antibody diagnosticum.
To conduct bacteriological examination, you must send it to a veterinary clinic corpse rodent. For large animals, the study will be sufficient to submit them to the liver and spleen, and kidneys, affected lymph nodes, and heart. Next part of the body is subjected to smear make seeding and culture indifitsiruyut isolated antigenically, Morphological and biochemical properties.
After the bioassay of isolated cultures, suspensions of lymph nodes and pieces of produce contamination of laboratory animals, most often white mice. Further there watching animals infected experimentally, which killed a third or second day after infection.
As a result, the following are considered patologoanotomicheskie installation:
1. allocation of pathological material culture of F. tularensis.
2. in the case where the bioassay clean, but it has been found characteristic of tularemia changes in the body, the release of it in pure culture.
The immunity specific prophylaxis of tularemia in cats and cats
After the animal is recovering, his immunity is greatly reduced. These antibodies are formed blood and the body begins sensitization. As for the vaccination of animals, then carry it does not make sense, because that vaccine that people vaccinated against tularemia in animals virtually no effect.
Prevention of tularemia in cats and cats
The most common measure in the fight against this disease is to destroy the source of the disease, disposal of water, food and so on.. For example, reducing the number of ticks iskodovyh, reduces the risk of cattle at his grazing. In other words, the destruction of vectors and pathogens lead to the fact that the probability of contracting is reduced to almost zero. Also, cattle graze on artificial meadows and pastures, destroying natural.
From getting rid of rodents by compressing straw and hay bales and then treated them with ammonia. Should also be ensured safe transport haystacks and OMETA straw and their subsequent storage in rooms that can not penetrate various rodents. In no case can not leave the straw and hay in the woods and along the edges of ravines.
Treatment. At the present time has not yet developed a special agent for the treatment of tularemia. So here are applied antibiotics such as streptomycin, chloramphenicol, dihydrostreptomycin, oletetrin, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and sulfa drugs and nitrofuranovye.
Measures against tularemia in cats and cats
Under no circumstances should not be permitted to slaughter of sick or suspect animals for disease, and shoot them with the skins. They must be isolated from healthy and carefully treated. In the case where there is a slaughter, meat and skin of infected animals must be destroyed without trace. As for healthy animals that were in close proximity to infected and their stern was discovered rodent droppings, their meat is thoroughly cleaned and sent to the plant for the production of cooked sausages.
You must also arrange for the destruction of rodents and vermin. Do not forget about the disinfection of premises, water bodies that have been contaminated with the causative virus. For this purpose, five or ten percent solution of Lysol, three – or five-percent solution of phenol, and the five percent solution of chlorine bleach solutions B or HB, formaldehyde and others.
In addition, you can take out the sick animals. However, this is done only after a thorough examination.
Measures for the protection of human health.
Prevention of disease among the people in the territory of the disease outbreak provides sanitary measures epizootic and epidemiological survey of the hearth. Must be complied with the order of hospitalization of patients and their medical examinations. And of course, as can be accurately tracked protivotulyaremiynogo state immunity.